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The anniversary industrialized cultivation technology of Hypsizygus marmoreus

2017-02-24 08:51:37

1. Introduction: Hypsizygus marmoreus naturally distributes in Europe, North America, Siberia, Japan and other places, it holds delicious flavor, tender texture, high nutritional value and is a kind of low-caloric and low-fat health food. In addition, Hypsizygus marmoreus owns 17 kinds of amino acid accounting for 13.27% of dry weight, among them, 8 kinds of essential amino acids occupy 36.82% of total contents of amino acid, the contained Lysine and Arginine play the crucial role to the intelligence and height development for teenagers.
Hypsizygus marmoreus also carries high medicinal value, the unique efficacy on preventing constipation, preventing and resisting to cancer, enhancing the immunity, preventing aging and prolonging life-span, hence it has been enjoying the fashionable trend in the United States, Japan, Korea and other nations, and China’s Taiwan region in recent year. At present, the scale cultivation of Hypsizygus marmoreus is conducted in Fujian, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Hebei, Henan, Shandong and other provinces in China, especially in Shunchang of Fujian Province, the factories engaging in Hypsizygus marmoreus cultivation come to 50-60. Since the marketing of Hypsizygus marmoreus in China, it has been well favored by customers with its unique taste.
2. Biological characteristics: 
A. The sporocarps of Hypsizygus marmoreus overgrow, in the early period, fungus caps own slippy surface, present round while they gradually open and flat after getting matured, the diameter of cap generally ranges from 1 to 1.5cm, the surface of cap also presents evident marble and stone-like speckles. What’s more, the fungus stipes show longer state, carry with white or gray meat quality, most of them show columned, sometimes the bottom portion inflates and the length varies from strain to strain. Normally, the diameter of stipe measures 1.0-1.5cm. The lamella shows sheet, campylotropous or orthotropous, it also presents white color, unequal length and closely-arranged, 2-4 sporidiums grow on the top.
B. In PDA slant tube, the spawns of Hypsizygus marmoreus are pure-white, dense, sturdy, regular and hairy, they hold less aerial mycelium, neither secrete pigment nor produce mycoderma while they produce Arthrospore and Chlamydospore. After becoming matured, the spawns turn light gray, spawns also imply orderly growth in saw-dust substrate, the front-end presents penniform and spawns form Rhizomorphs at outer layer of substrate.
C. Ecological habit: Hypsizygus marmoreus is a kind of lignicolous white-rot fungus which grows in Fagaceae species such as Fagus, other dead woods, wind-falls and stumps of broad-leaved tree.
D. Living conditions: 
a. Nutritional requirement: Hypsizygus marmoreus holds greater capacity of decomposing lignin. In nature, the main nutritional substrates include Fagus, Horse chestnut and other broad-leaved trees. For its artificial cultivation, it is common to take sawdusts, cottonseed hulls, corncobs, straws and other wastes from agriculture and forestry products as Carbon sources, take bran, rice brans, soybean flour, corncob flour and cottonseeds as Nitrogen source, then combine with a small amount of trace elements. The proportion between Carbon and Nitrogen of substrate should be controlled in 30~34 to 1, which more fits for the growth of Hypsizygus marmoreus, the optimal proportion presents 32 to 1.
b. Temperature: Hypsizygus marmoreus falls under with medium and low-temperature type and mostly occurs in late autumn or early spring under natural condition, the growth temperature of spawns is 5-30 degrees and the optimal range is 20-25 degrees, spawns stop growing under 4 degrees or above 35 degrees and they tend to die when the temperature reaches above 45 degrees. What’s more, the low-temperature stimulation of 10-16 degrees is needed during the formation period of primordium and the ideal temperature during the growth period of sporocarps is 13-18 degrees.
c. Humidity: The preferred water content in compost is 63%, you could moderately moisturize on the surface of fungus sacks before mushrooms fruit so as to raise the water content to a range of 70%-75%, which makes for the growth of Hypsizygus marmoreus. Moreover, during the differentiation period of mushroom buds, you could adjust the relative air humidity of mushroom house to a range of 90%-95%, during the growth period of sporocarps, adjust to a range of 85%-90%. When the relative air humidity is higher than 95% for a long time, sporocarps are easy to produce yellow spots and soft texture.
d. Illumination: Illumination is not required during the growth period of spawns, direct illumination not only inhibits the growth of spawns, but also brings about deeper color and lustre on spawns. However, certain weak illumination is inversely needed to promote the normal growth of primordium during the reproduction stage, illumination holds certain relativity with the occurrence of primordium, darkness inhibits the differentiation of mushroom caps and then causes misshapen mushrooms, under dark condition, Hypsizygus marmoreus are easy to whiten, which results in poor products quality. Distinct phototropism also exists during the growth period of sporocarps, thus you could control the illumination intensity in a range of 200-1000 lux during the fruiting period.
e. Air: Hypsizygus marmoreus falls under with Moderate Aerobic Fungus, the spawns are not sensitive to air. However, along with the prolonged breathing time and the raising of Carbon dioxide concentration, the growth speed of spawn turns slow. However, the sporocarps of Hypsizygus marmoreus are sensitive to Carbon dioxide during the growth period, hence you could control the concentration of Carbon dioxide to a range of 0.05%-0.1% during the differentiation period of mushroom buds, then when sporocarps grow up, you could control it to a range of 0.2%-0.4%. In actual operation, mushroom farmers tend to raise the concentration of Carbon dioxide to a moderate degree through eliminating the ventilation so that they delay the opening time of fungus caps, promote the long stipes, raise the quality and the output. It should not be overlooked that sporocarps tend to become misshapen when the concentration of Carbon dioxide is higher than 0.8% for a long time.
F. PH Value: In the range of 9.0-8.0, the spawns of Hypsizygus marmoreus carries lax requirement to PH Value, they grow under the PH Value of 4.0-8.5. Different strain holds different demands on PH Value. During the growth period of spawns, the preferred stage is 6.5-7.5. Therefore, in actual operation, you could make sure that the PH Value of substrate is in 7.5 or so.
3. The design of cultivation field and facility construction:
A. The design requirements and layouts of cultivation place: The cultivation place of Hypsizygus marmoreus should be settled in where holds high position, desirable ventilation, unrestricted drainage, convenient electricity and traffic condition, what’s more, the place should also be away from pollution sources, free from livestock houses, garbage or faeces field, sewage or other pollution sources such as cement plant, tile field, lime factory and wood processing plant.
In accordance with production craft, living area, the storage area of raw materials, material-mixing area, bagging area, sterilization area, cooling area, inoculation area, cultivation area and fruiting area should be successively settled and reasonably distributed. Moreover, you could try to guarantee that the production is in good order while saving time and labor.
B. Temperature-control mushroom house structure and the layout of refrigeration equipment: The preferred ground is hardened cement ground, the roof and surrounding area should all be made of sandwich color plate. The superior area of each temperature-control greenhouse should be about 80 square meters. In oversize area, it is hard to control the growth condition while the utilization rate is low and the unit cost is too high in too small area. In each greenhouse, you could set a 10 PH refrigeration machine and 4 exhaust fans. Moreover, you could also install 2 daylight lamps in every aisles.
C. The design of cultivation shelves in temperature-control mushroom house: Adopt bed-frame cultivation, shelves should be set in 4-5 layers. You could make sure that the first layer is 20cm from the ground and the space between each shelve is 60cm. Moreover, the top shelf should be 100cm from the foam insulation board on the roof, the top layer should be isolated from ceiling with anti-drop film so as to avoid direct wind produced by refrigeration machine on fungus sack. The proper width of bed shelf should be 1 meter. LED lamp strip should be installed in the back of bed shelf of each layer and 1 stripe is generally needed between 0.5 meters of width.
D. The layout of humidifier: You could put up an atomizer owning high atomizing degree and even space atomization in each greenhouse. What’s more, a artificial sprayer should also be set in each greenhouse so that you implement artificial humidification in case of too low humidity in greenhouse.
E. The layout of ventilation equipment: In each greenhouse, set 2 intake fans, on the other side, put up 2 exhaust fans which directly face aisles. Intake fans should be settled on top of greenhouse and 50cm from the roof. Exhaust fans should be settled on bottom of greenhouse and 20cm from the ground. The referenced specification of fan is 250mm*250mm.
Distinguished readers, the next portion of “The anniversary industrialized cultivation technology of Hypsizygus marmoreus” will be published in April, please stay tuned.