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The intellectualized production technology of Enoki mushroom

2016-12-29 16:04:07

Mushroom is the characteristic and superior industry in Pinghu City, Zhejiang Province, China which doubles as the key development industry held by local government. In recent years, local government has been paying high attention to the position and role in agricultural circular economy construction where mushroom industry sits, strengthening the supporting force to mushroom industry, which vigorously promoted the sustained and steady development of mushroom industry in the whole city. According to statistics, in 2012, local mushroom cultivation area reached 305 hectares, the annual production value added up to 100 million of CNY. Since the year, mushroom has become the crucial channel for local agriculture to increase benefits and for local farmers to generate incomes.
What’s more, Pinghu City situates in the economic zone of Yangtze Delta, adjoins Shanghai City, Hangzhou City, Suzhou City and other large and medium-sized cities, which reveals convenient traffic, huge market consumption potentials and evident regional advantages on developing mushroom cultivation.
Implementing intellectualized production of Enoki mushroom acts as the valid guarantee on further promoting the development level of mushroom industry, intensifying mushroom’s market competitiveness and accelerating the development of mushroom industry.
1. The practicing significance: Enoki mushroom falls under with low temperature type and fits for the cultivation in winter, autumn and early spring. It is also famous for its tender cap, crisp strip, abundant nutrition and delicate flavor. According to determination, Enoki mushroom holds abundant amino acid that is higher than other varieties. Moreover, the higher content of Lysine which facilitates promoting children’s mental development is obviously showed in Enoki mushroom.
Enoki mushroom is a kind of delicious food as well as superior dietary supplement, which owns wide domestic and oversea markets. Specialized cooperatives are normally the support to implement intellectualized production of Enoki mushroom, realize anniversary and anti-season production, intensify the product’s market competitiveness in accordance with the demand of large scale and intensification, hence increasing the outputs and benefits, helping farmers generate revenues and filling in the gaps of local intellectualized, industrialized production of Enoki mushroom.
2. Implementation points: In order to achieve intellectualized and anniversary production of Enoki mushroom, you could master the following technology.
A. Lay emphasis on technological processes: Mix materials→Package→Sterilize→Inoculate→Cultivate strain (12-19 degrees)→Induce buds (13-15 degrees)→Fruit→Pick→Package→Transport and market
Note 1: The considerable raw materials are 30% cottonseed hull, 30% bran, 10% auxiliary materials (Corn powder+Superphosphate+Calcium hydrophosphate), adjust the water content to a range of 60%-65%.
Note 2: Sterilize under normal pressures for 10 hours in 100 degrees.
Note 3: Control the temperature to a range of 17-19 degrees during the growth period of spawns, during the period of bud-thinning, control the temperature to a range of 13-15 degrees.
B. Temperature management: It usually takes 65 days to conduct intellectualized cultivation of Enoki mushroom in refrigeration house, the temperature requirements vary in different growth phases. In general, 15-19 degrees should be kept during the growth phase of spawns, 13-15 degrees should be kept during bud-thinning and fruiting period, 9-12 degrees should be kept during the reproduction phase and 3-5 degrees should be kept during the inhibition phase. You could meet different temperature requirements through refrigerator. It should be pointed out that superior Enoki mushrooms are non-attainable as you control other terms ideally while remaining the constant temperature (6-9 degrees) during the whole growth process. The followings are the managements in three phases during the fruiting period of Enoki mushroom:
Phase 1: Reproduction phase, which refers to that you put the cultivation bags which have got fruited and opened into refrigeration house, then the original Enoki mushrooms terminate and the new sporocarps start to grow. During this phase, you should control the temperature to a range of 9-12 degrees and remain for 8 days.
Phase 2: Inhibition phase, which means that under the combined action of low-temperature, hard light and strong wind, you slow the growth the newly-grown sporocarps so as to achieve even growth on fungus cap. During this phase, you should control the temperature to a range of 3-5 degrees and remain for 5 days. It should be noted that too strong wind or too long action time may cause withered sporocarps while too slow wind speed or short action time may come short of the effect of inhibition and result in uneven fruiting.
Phase 3: Growth phase: After the inhibition, when the orderly sporocarps grow to a height range of 13-15cm, you could arrange the picking.
C. Humidity management: The humidity in greenhouse plays a decisive role to the quality, low humidity brings about superior Enoki mushrooms that are endurable in storage. On the contrary, high humidity generates high yield and the mushrooms that are unendurable in storage. During the growth phase, you should control the relative air humidity to a range of 70%-80%. In addition, Enoki mushroom falls under with aerobic fungus, hence you need to constantly supplement fresh air. Firstly precool the hot air, then ventilate so as to lower the relative air humidity of cultivation room and lift humidity control.
D. Ventilation: It is also a crucial condition which affects the output and quality. The higher concentration of Carbon dioxide brings about larger caps and higher output. What’s more, the concentration of Carbon dioxide determines the length of stipe, which directly affects the superiority or inferiority. The recommended superior Carbon dioxide is 2.5%-3.5%.
E. Light management: Light plays the inhibition effect, strong light brings about slow growth, orderly form, large density and relatively high output. Moreover, the period of strong light should be settled during the inhibition phase and should be avoided during the growth phase or it may affects the quality. Furthermore, the light application time should also be taken into account, the combined action of strong light, low temperature, strong wind and other factors contribute to an ideal inhibition effect and a desirable result. The advisable light condition is 16h/d-18h/d.
3. Implementation benefit:
A. Economic benefits: In order to develop intellectualized production of Enoki mushroom, you could construct temperature-control fruiting room, auxiliary room and inoculation room and put up refrigeration equipment, since the trial production from September, Pinghu City has totally cultivated 150,000 bags of Enoki mushroom, achieved the production value of 451,840 CNY and generated the profit of 164,000 CNY.
B. Ecological benefits: Developing intellectualized production of Enoki mushroom facilitates further promoting the construction of agricultural circular economy, enhancing the utilization efficiency of agricultural production facilities and resources. It holds the positive significance on improving the ecological environment of agricultural production and promoting the sustainable development of mushroom industry.
C. Social benefits: The development of intellectualized Enoki mushroom production creates a pioneer on local industrialized mushroom production, continuously lifts the industrial development level and position function of local mushroom industry, raises the level of facilities and equipment, promotes moderate scale management and accelerates the development course of industrialization.
4. The implementation prospects of intellectualized production technology of Enoki mushroom: Implementing the intellectualized production technology of Enoki mushroom could not only realize and anti-season and anniversary production of Enoki mushroom, but also enhance the quality and output. Compared with refrigeration, The Enoki mushrooms produced in non-regular production season carry more superior quality and bigger market demand. Through the exploration and implementation of intellectualized production technology, it enables Enoki mushroom to overcome the limitations of climatic environment, which makes for realizing anniversary production, increasing the incomes for farmers and lifting industrial superiority, meanwhile, they could also realize the standardized production and brand sales which owns greater market benefits and wider development prospects.