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The new technology on utilizing residues of Enoki mushroom to cultivate Agaricus Blazei

2016-10-12 14:20:34

During March and April, abundant residues are generally produced after people pick Enoki mushroom, which could be used as the compost in the cultivation of Agaricus Blazei.
1. The source of material and formula: via experiments, the optimal formula on bag cultivation of Agaricus Blazei was elected, which refers to the residues of Enoki mushroom 40%, sawdust 20%, cottonseed hull 10%, cow dung 15%, rice husk 5%, bran 5%, calcium magnesium phosphate 1.5%, lime 2.5%, gypsum 1%.
2. The disposal of compost: firstly, smash the residues of Enoki mushroom, prewet cottonseed hull, mix fungus residues, sawdust and cottonseed hull evenly and adjust the humidity in about 60%. Then, build heaps in accordance with a layer of material and a layer of cow dung (Water should be added in dried cow dung). When building heaps, the height could be controlled in 1.5 meters while the width is in 2-2.2 meters, the height could be flexibly mastered in accordance with the site condition. After that, people could drill vent holes around the material pile, create the shape of turtle on pile top and cover plastic films in rainy days. In general, 3 times of pile-turning are needed and each interval time could be about 4-6 days. After fermentation, add 5% of rice husk, 5% of bran, 1.5% of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, 1% of gypsum, 2.5% of lime, mix well, finally adjust the PH Value in 7.5 and the moisture in 62%.
3. The making of fungus sack: adopt polyethylene bags with the specification of 22cm*45cm, each bag takes about 1.25kg of dried material, when finding broken bags, timely repair, then conduct atmospheric pressure sterilization for 12 hours in 100 degrees. After finding that the temperature of sterilized fungus sack has been cooled under 60 degrees, remove bags, move out of the stove and transfer into inoculation room, double-headed inoculation could be conducted when the bag temperature has been lowered to normal temperature, then seal with neck straps and newspapers. The most important thing is that aseptic operating procedures should be strictly adhered to when inoculating.
4. Spawns cultivation: after moving inoculated fungus sacks into cultivation room, place them in accordance with well shape and the gap of 5cm between each bag should be kept so as to prevent “Burning bag”. During the cultivation period of spawns, the temperature of cultivation room should be controlled in 25 degrees and the room should be remained dark, what’s more, normal ventilation should be enhanced in order to keep fresh air. In general, after 35-40 days, spawns become fully-grown.
5. The earthing of fungus sacks: earthing is a crucial step during the whole cultivation period of Agaricus Blazei, which affects the yield and quality. The field where has lee and sunny condition, fresh-faced topography, convenient irrigation and drainage and fertile soil could be chosen to build mushroom house or shade-frame.
A. The way of earthing: overall bag-removing upright earthing, overall bag-removing prostrate earthing, upright earthing in the bag and other ways could be settled, different ways of earthing bring about unlike depth in cultivation slot, the optimal depth is 80cm, 40cm could be left between each bed to serve as the aisle or working channel.
B. The earthing of bag-array: using overall prostrate cultivation bed earthing as an example: chamfer by 80cm in width, 12cm in depth and unlimited in length, pile up soil in aisle to take as the earthing material, before arraying bags, scatter a layer of lime powder in the internal of slot, after removing bags, arrange 4 bags in the width of 80cm and the spacing between each bag should be about 5cm, 3000 bags could be cultivated in each 677 square meters. Before using covering materials, scatter 1% of lime, 1% of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, mix well while smashing soil into particles with the diameter of 0.5-2cm. At the same time, adjust the soil humidity, the advisable judgment is that it becomes flat and not sticky when pinching with hands. For some soil with big viscosity, people could mix rice husk or carbon residue, earth up after increasing its permeability and the optimal thickness is 3-4cm.
C. The management after earthing: after earthing, people could always remain moist condition on soil, when finding that the soil turns into white, spray water to moisten soil. It should be noted that the amount of water-spraying should be proper, or it will cause too high moisture content on soil and soil hardening.
6. Fruiting management: 15-20 days after earthing, when people find that spawns have climbed on soil layer and granular white primordiums have appeared, people could enhance the temperature management, moisture management and ventilation.
A. Temperature management: during the growth period of sporocarps, control the temperature in 16-32 degrees, the optimal temperature is 22-28 degrees, normal sporocarps are normally hard to form when the temperature is lower than 15 degrees or higher than 32 degrees. Within the appropriate temperature range, high temperature speeds up the growth of sporocarps, helps grow long stipes and get the caps that re easy to open, therefore, during the hot summer, it is necessary to adopt the corresponding measures to lower the temperature. Moreover, in order to improve product quality, desirable measures are building shades and spraying with cold water on the top of greenhouse.
B. Moisture management: the fundamental purpose is to supplement the moisture on overbarden and moisturize mushroom greenhouse so as to meet the demands on the sporocarps of Agaricus blazei.
(1) Spray water to promote the formation of sporocarps: 15-20 days after earthing, when people find that filiform spawns have appeared on soil cracks and began to kink into primordiums presenting rice size, they could spray water to promote the formation of sporocarps, they could concretely determine the time, frequency and the amount of water-spraying in accordance with the soil texture, thickness, robustness and weakness of spawns and the moisture conditions of mushroom house, climatic conditions should be combined with as well. It is worth mentioning that “Light intensity and frequent spraying” are applied on spraying water, the standard on soil particles is that they could be pinched in flat type, twisted in round type and are not sticky.
(2) Spray water to fruit: the growth rate gets increased and a large number of moisture is needed in the case of that primordiums have grown to the size of mung bean, on that occasion, timely spray 1-2 times of water to promote the growth speed of sporocarps. At the same time, too big water temperature differences should be avoided. Water quantities could be determined by the amount of sporocarps and the principal is to spray more water on large quantities of mushroom. Moreover, it is advisable to spray water 4-6 days after spraying water to promote the formation of sporocarps and keep the relative air humidity in about 90%. When finding large quantities of bean-sized sporocarps, people could also spray water again.
(3) Spray water to keep moist: dry climate is obviously clear in summer and autumn, with high moisture evaporation. On that occasion, people could always spray water on the space of mushroom house to keep moist and keep the relative air humidity in 85%-90%. It is also ideal to spray water in the morning or at night whenever it is in low temperature. The frequency and consumption could be flexibly mastered in accordance with the temperature and ventilation condition of mushroom house.
(4) Spray water to turn flush: after each picking, people could immediately clear away fungus bed, get rid of dead mushrooms and old roots, then spray a small amount of water. After 2 or 4 days, increase water quantity to urge the next flush of mushroom. After that, spray water once a day and continuously spray for 2-3 days. Whereafter, spray water to keep moist till the formation of next flush of mushroom.
C. Ventilation: Agaricus blazei is a kind of aerobic mushroom, during its fruiting period, people could keep constant fresh air in mushroom house, pay attention to the ventilation and keep relative ventilation. When encountering high temperature, conduct day and night ventilation so as to avoid frowsty greenhouse and large quantities of dead mushroom which are caused by high temperature.
7. Picking: picking could be arranged when people find that the sporocarps are in bud and are about to open caps. Caps present maroon and flakes appeared on the surface. In high temperature, people could pick in every morning and night. It should be noted that big heads could be picked and small heads should be left. People could lightly hold the middle part of mushroom stipe, then pull upwards. In general, a batch of fungus sack could cultivate 4-5 flushes, the gap between each flush is about 10 days, freshly-picked mushrooms could be timely sold, salted or dried so as not to open caps and affect quality.