Briefly talk about the industrialized production of mushroom industry

2016-10-10 14:24:00

In the process of social development, all the enterprises encounter some problems on effectively utilizing social resources such as land resource, capital accumulation, government funding, human resources, innovation and market expanding under the condition of market economy. Mushroom industry is no exception. In order to seek survival and development and create new performance, many original scattered, individual producers have organized spontaneously and voluntarily, followed the development way of cooperatives and enterprise, formed mushroom production cooperatives on a nation wide scale. Especially in recent years, many mushroom producers and production units also applied the concept of industrial development and accelerated the improving pace of mushroom industry, tried to get rid of current backward production situation, strove to figure a new way out and made mushroom production gradually go from industrialized production. However, due to the limited fund, inadequate investment, lack of talents and other reasons, facilities and equipment and a complete set of techniques that are needed in industrialized production of mushroom are inadequate, the production management and environment protection are not scientific, which all restrict the degree of industrialized production, some production enterprises, especially for the majority of small micro enterprises, the production efficiency is not high enough, the output and quality of product is not stable, the market competition ability is low, hence the majority of enterprises that specialize in mushroom industrialized production are still in primary stage and it is necessary to fundamentally change the means of production and production mode.
So far, the development of mushroom industry roughly experienced the following three stages: the first stage is independent of individual production, the second stage is intensive production of cooperatives, the third stage is today’s primary stage of industrialized production.
The followings are related problems in mushroom production, combined with many years’ experiences on promoting and applying ozone disinfection technology. Let’s talk about our views and debates and discuss with colleagues in mushroom industry.  
Basic conditions on industrialized production of mushroom: in terms of content of industrialized production of mushroom, it should includes industrial base zone, garden planning layout, industrialized production mode, standardization of technology, product sales branding, institutionalization of various management and so on. Now, let’s choose industrialized production mode to discuss about what conditions should we have and what degree should we reach into?
A. Means of production (equipment and facilities) should be modernized: The means of production is in the whole process of mushroom food production, means and instruments that we choose in each link of production. It is the basic element and main condition during the whole production. In terms as current production situation of mushroom food, especially the majority of small micro-enterprises,  intensive manual operation is given priority to their production links. Lack of reasonable production organization, needful advanced facilities and equipment. Scientific testing methods cannot fundamentally achieve the true sense of reducing production cost, improving labor productivity,  increasing production, guaranteeing and optimizing original product and developing new product independently. For this, as the industrialized production of mushroom food, we must firstly modernize production means, which highlights that in the whole process of production, we must make the mechanization in the whole operation, automation in working process, adjust and control intellectualization and replace the low efficiency of manual operation, reduce the physical labor intensity, improve work efficiency and production capacity.
B. The scientization and standardization of production technology: production technology and technique are the most essential characteristics in production activities, which involve in the production method, production process, production control, production safety and so on, it will eventually embody in implement on product quality and quantity. Therefore, we should be sure to pay attention to scientificity in production process, comply with regulations of mushroom growth and characteristics of production, adopt mature standardized technique, advanced technology and scientific testing methods, guide and implement the whole process of production and establish traceable system in each process. We should also distinguish experiences which are individual, with sublimation, with limitation and old backward production methods, show the advantages and superiorities of industrialized production.
C. Personnel should be in high quality: personnel of enterprise are fundamental elements in enterprise existence, development and operation, the quality directly affects the present situation and the future of the enterprise, hence personnel should: 
1. Be familiar with the profession knowledge, be proficient in the job they do, with innovative spirit and development ability, has the ability to solve practical problems on production, be collaborative and be a high-quality scientific and technical personnel who is capable of making sure the enterprise is to be immortal.
2. Personnel of production operation must receive professional training, has high sense of responsibility, professional dedication, innovation consciousness and can strictly abide by production rules, regulations and labor discipline, deeply know about the status in  production chain regarding his work. Skilled, has the ability to complete the assigned work and ensure the stability of product quality.
3. Personnel of production and management should be proactive, pioneering and has overall ideas, can skillfully master knowledge on modern enterprise management, be good at combining production characteristic of  mushroom food with enterprise management, has the ability to realize the organic unification of people, machine and mushroom, has high awareness of social responsibility on product quality and food safety, both clearly understand the status quo of the unit and industry development tend of domestic and overseas, can move company to the forefront or the leading position of the industry, has the capacity to draw relevant personnel together to skillfully organize, direct production and deal with complex situations.
4. All enterprise activities should be standardized: enterprise activities are a part of social activities, just like that that social activities should possess laws and rules, apart from holding organization and production headquarters which are smart, hardworking, collaborative and high efficient, enterprise activities should also possess rules and regulations, evaluation system, rewards and punishment system, equipment maintenance system, cleaning system both in production area and non-production area, health system for production personnel, product delivery inspection system and product recall regulation to be as the basis for guiding and standardizing the whole production process and promote enterprise to operate efficiently.
5. The rationalization of enterprise hand and house: enterprise land and house are the place for business activities, it should conform to the scale of production area, the layout of production law and should be a good garden-environment that with trees, green land, fresh air, free from dust and has suitability to work, live and rest.
The environment of industrialized mushroom production: sundry fungus infection is a major threat in mushroom production. It has become one of the main factors in restricting production and influencing quality. However, people always simply rely on sterilization to eliminate sundry fungus, which is just partial surface. The correct disposal is to control the destroy of sundry fungus from the original source, set up the thought of “Give priority to prevention” and solve ecological environment in production area.
1. Where is the pollution source of mushroom production?
A. Material stacking: people always take an impression that as long as you walk into production zone, things that in front of your eyes are some piles of cotton seed and bits of wood, which has no preservation measures. Actually, it is the biggest pollution source in the air, because raw materials themselves exist various sundry fungi. They will become mildew, rotten and sterilized under the condition of sun and rain.
B. Wastes in the production: in mushroom production, it is inevitable to produce lots of abandoned fungus bags, which are with many polluted fungi and if not timely processed or buried, they will become the big pollution source.
C. Sludge, dirt: garbage and sewage are accumulated in production area, which is a big pollution source. The three factors influence each other. Enterprises should seek ways on their inhibition.
2. How to inhibit pollution source? 
A. Build raw material house: when building or transforming houses of production, it is necessary for people to choose those with moderate scale, with transparent top and sunlight houses. The site of raw material house should be away from cooling room, inoculation room and breeding room.
B. Dispose wastes in time: fungus bags should be away from production zone, should be buried or burned for second use and prevent the second pollution source.
C. Clean sewage in time: there are lots of perishable wastes in garbage, which should be discarded in a special container and put in dark type dustbin, gutter should be in bright type and can be cleaned timely to prevent the growth of sundry fungus.
3. Create a garden environment: as is known to all, the original place of mushroom foods is in dense forest. They become edible products through people’s collection, separation and cultivation, so, in the production of mushroom, producers should make efforts to build original ecological environment, which is also a good way to inhibit and reduce polluted fungus. Ideal production area should be forest-like, green all the year, with clean and fresh air and no garbage.
A good ecological environment not only  facilitates providing adequate oxygen, conditions that are suitable for the growth of mushrooms, the increasing of quality and output, but also providing fresh, comfortable air for producers and improving work efficiency. 
Reasonable layout in industrialized mushroom production: when beginning to plan and setting up production, in order to effectively inhibit destroying that is caused by polluted fungus, improve production efficiency, make full use of social resources and acquire the best economical benefits, people should put reasonable and scientific layout in accordance with different characteristics in production links and different sterilization demands in the growth of mushrooms. Enterprises should build production lines that are closely related with each other and relatively independent in accordance with production characteristics of each link.
A. Substrate mixed production line: the first substrate mixed production line that is constituted of crushing, mixing, sterilization and bagging, the production line exists many harmful polluted fungi and is the main pollution source in production, hence it is suitable to build raw material house to make intervals with production lines. It is best to build a row of forest belt to prevent the spreading of polluted fungi by wind.
B. The breeding and cultivation of production line: to make organic connection of high pressure sterilization, cooling (precooling, forced cooling, breeding of different inoculation assembly line and spawn-running), form the second cultivation production line that is closed, tight and clean, it is a aseptic production line with high demand of cleanness. In order to eliminate the pollution of fungus, the whole production line should be reliable and with efficient sterilization measures. After finishing a batch of inoculation tasks, production place should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected.
C. Cultivation and fruiting production line: the third production line is constituted of fruiting, picking, sorting and packaging, it is the biggest production line and should hold strict regulatory measures, custom inspection system, good intelligent equipment of ventilation, exhaust, heat prevention, moisture and other sterilization measures to guarantee good growth environment, growing conditions and provide mushroom foods with high quality and good taste.